21st Century Youth-Led Uprisings
Serbia: 2000 President Milosevic was ousted in 2000 by Otpor (Resistance)
Georgia: 2003, Kmara (Enough) led protests against rigged elections leading to the resignation of President Edward Shevardnadze, called the Rose Revolution. Youth built on earlier organizing against the corrupt education system in 2000.
Ukraine: 2004, Pora (It’s Time) led thousands of young protesters against rigged elections.
2013, protests in the western part of Ukraine against the president’s move away from the European Union to alliance with Russia.
Venezuela: 2007, the catalyst for student organizing was the government shut down of their favorite TV station, a voice of opposition. Their demonstrations shut down the city but the station wasn’t reopened. Next, students mobilized a no vote to Hugo Chavez’ 44-page 69 constitutional amendments to permit him to be president for life and enlarge his powers.
Iran: 2009, the Green Movement protested rigged presidential elections but didn’t succeed in removing Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
Tunisia: 2011, President Ben Ali resigned and fled to Saudi Arabia after a fruit vender set himself on fire the previous December to protest corruption. The first democratic elections were held in October with the most votes going to the moderate Islamist Ennahda party that resigned in 2013 so new elections were held.
Egypt: 2011, January 25 began the revolution. President Hosni Mubarak resigned in February, 18 days later.
2013, after a year in office President Mohammed Morsi was ousted in a military coup backed by large demonstrations due to his attempts to abrogate power and Islamize the government.
Yemen: 2011, In January demonstrations against President Ali Abdullah Saleh. He resigned in November. Elections were held in February 2014.
Libya: 2011, uprisings began February 15 after security forces opened fire on a protest in Benghazi. Mummar Qaddafi was killed in August. July elections voted in a secular party over the party aligned with the Muslim Brotherhood. Demonstrators chanted, “No God but Allah, Moammar is the enemy of Allah” and “Down, down to corruption and to the corrupt.”
Bahrain: 2011, protests began in February 17. King Hamad brought in Saudi troops. Angry Shia youth turned to violence.
Morocco: In February, demonstrators took to the streets to limit some of the powers of the monarchy. The king offered reform including giving up his divine rights and nominating a prime minister from the largest party in parliament. The youth-led February 20 Movement wanted a constitutional monarchy, but the constitutional amendments they ejected were approved in July. Moderate Islamists won the November elections.
Syria: 2011, protest began in March. The civil war killed 100,000 people and displaced over two million Syrians from their homes. A peace conference was held in Geneva in 2014.
Oman: 2011, in the summer youth groups demanded the resignation of the prime minister, a nephew of the Emir. He was replaced in November.