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Valentine Moghadam. Globalization and Social Movements: Islamism, Feminism, and the Global Justice Movement. Roman & Littlefield, 2009.

Author Valentine Moghadam maintains that the form of current economic globalization is neoliberal capitalism, characterized by “denationalization, privatization, flexible labor markets, and deregulated capital markets.” Its lack of concern for “labor rights, human rights, women’s rights, and environmental protection” has sparked transnational social movements. They include feminist networks and the global justice movement (also called alter-globalization) that organizes at annual conferences such as the World Social Forum (first met in 2001 in Brazil). She includes Islamist fundamentalist movements of jihad against McDonalization of western values. These social movements are critical of the agents of neoliberalism including the multinational World Bank, International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and regional associations such as the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement. The advocacy networks organize actions such as boycotts, marches, and conferences.

Transnational feminist networks developed in the 1980s to oppose neoliberal economic policies, religious fundamentalism especially in the Muslim world, and peace groups. Divisions developed between North and South, but feminists united in opposition to neoliberalism and fundamentalism—Muslim, Christian, and Hindu. They organized networks including DAWN, Development Alaternatives with Women for a New Era and communication services: http://www.iwtc.org and http://www.isiswomen.org


PS. This book gives example of successful implementation of quotas for women legislators. Electoral Politics: Making Quotas Work for Women by

Homa Hoodfar  and Mona Tajali, 2012.


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