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Archive for April, 2011

Ethics of William and Kate’s Wedding

The bad news: Estimate of the costs of William and Kate’s royal wedding are over $70 million, at a time when almost one-third of UK’s children are poor. (www.endchildpoverty.org.uk/why-end-child-poverty/key-facts). Is this kind of unnecessary expenditure moral? The good news is, despite upper class snide remarks about Kate’s middle-class background coming from a family whose previous generations were coal miners, his family didn’t insist that William marry a virginal royal like Diana. Also, she’s as well educated and old as he is and took out “obey” from her wedding vows. They asked that guests give to charities rather than bring gifts. The question is what kind of responsibility do we have to feed and shelter other human beings who suffer? On a lighter note, did you see the outlandish hats worn by upper-class women? (http://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/amazing-hats-at-the-royal-wedding ) Compare with the American hats at the Kentucky Derby (http://bleacherreport.com/articles/694068-2011-kentucky-derby-top-10-hats-at-churchill-downs#/articles/694068-2011-kentucky-derby-top-10-hats-at-churchill-downs)

Global Youth SpeakOut Media Sites for Photos, Interviews, etc.

Social Activism


It always seems impossible until it’s done. Nelson Mandela

Don’t wait for the leaders. Do it alone. Person to person. Mother Teresa

We are all agents of transfiguration. Go forth and transform your personal relationships, your community, your world, so it becomes hospitable to joy, to justice, to freedom, to peace. Desmond Tutu

Big change looks impossible when you start and inevitable when you finish. Bob Hunter, founder of Greenpeace

Today more than ever the world’s youth are agents of change, and to change the world we need to share knowledge and information.

World Youth Conference Mexico 2010[i]

Individuals can make a difference when we work for the cause we believe in; think of the social change created by President Lincoln and the abolition of slavery, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton for women’s right to vote, Gandhi liberating India, Martin Luther King advancing civil rights for Blacks, Rosa Parks igniting the Civil Rights movement by not giving up her bus seat, and the campaign for hope generated by President Barach Obama. Former President Jimmy Carter has written books about how to have peace in the Middle East and worked to help negotiate it. You add to the list of individual peacemakers.

Women like Leymah Gbowee, from Liberia, organized thousands of women to join in peace talks to end their country’s civil war. They walked out onto the battlefield and refused to leave until a truce was reached. Muslim and Christian women worked together to end civil war in Liberia.[ii] Women from different ethnic backgrounds also have come together to make peace, as with Kup Women for Peace in Papua New Guinea, composed of four rival tribal groups.[iii] When fighting broke out, the women spent two weeks camping on the battlefield using a megaphone to call for a truce and visited the villages of the warring factions talking about peace and they succeeded. Small groups can generate change.

Radiation Defense

This whole post is a quote from Christian Bates. I didn’t write any of it, but thought you might find it useful.

Protect Your Thyroid:


Radio-iodine mimics iodine. Our thyroid is an iodine sponge: it uses iodine to create the hormones that keep our body healthy, immune and metabolically balanced. When radio-iodine gets in there, it releases harmful gamma and beta radiation, doing untold damage to our tissues and DNA and can create a hypo-thyroid situation and cancer. Take above-maintenance doses of iodine sources to fill up your thyroids receptor sites:

Nascent Iodine: Highly absorbable concentrated liquid ionic iodine, available at a great price while supplies last here: http://bit.ly/NtrlNews (If they are out, keep checking back, they should have more within a week.)

Potassium Iodide: There is already a worldwide deficiency of this product as people are buying this up. I personally think this product is a bit harsh and toxic and inferior to Nascent Iodine, but effective for acute radio-iodine exposure. Use as directed.

Sea Vegetables: Kelps are considered the highest in iodine, and contain the co-factors for proper iodine absorbtion. The good news is that sea vegetables taste great and thus you can still have the best time ever making a seaweed rich dinner while preparing for the worst disaster ever.

Ashwagandha extract: Ashwagandha acts as an adaptogen against stress and has been shown to regrow nerves.

The thyroid loves coconut oil and maca for its hormone precursor constituents.

Protect Your Bones:

Strontium-90 fits right into your bones, emitting gamma and beta radiation. Consuming a daily brew of horsetail, nettle, oat straw and alfalfa tea (all high in silica and bone growth co-factors) nourishes the bone matrix.

The new product Bone Renewel by the Synergy Company is by far the best bone-building supplement on the market! It also acts as a Vitamin D and K2 source.

Protect Your Muscles and Soft Tissues:

Cesium-137 goes into your muscles and soft tissues, emitting more gamma and beta radiation as it decays. Foods high in magnesium (green chlorophyll-rich vegetables, raw cacao) and sulfur (MSM, spicy foods) promote proper circulation and detoxification of the skeletal and smooth muscle.

Protect Your Paths of Detoxification:

Taking zeolites (Natural Cellular Defense and ZeoForce are great choices) will safely and permanently chelate heavy metals (like cesium) to be easily urinated out. Hydrate well when taking zeolites.

Fulvic acid, black mica extracts (including Adya Clarity), shilajit, chlorella and cilantro are known to bind up and help detoxify heavy metals.

Protect Your Immune System:

Loading up on adaptogenic, deeply nourishing Superfoods and Superherbs will help your body stay strong as you tap into your body’s innate ability to detoxify itself:

Medicinal Mushroom extracts and mycelium: These immunomodulating gentle herbs lift your immune system up when its down from environmental stress, but can also lower any autoimmune situations such as when the body attacks itself (i.e. attacking the thyroid because the thyroid is full of radioactive toxins). Get your mushrooms now before future supplies that are grown in the fallout zones test positive for radioactivity. Growing mushrooms are notorious for bioaccumulating toxins into their tissues, more so than plants, but only if the toxins are present in their growing medium (such as radioactive metals deposited  on the soil).

Nourish your adrenals and kidneys with a high quality sea salt. I like Celtic the best.

MegaHydrate is a product that delivers free hydrogen ions to your system, increasing the uptake of nutrients (especially omega-3 fatty acids) vital for immune system and nervous system maintenance.

Whole food vitamin C (camu berries, acerola berry, amla berry to name a few high sources) keeps your tissues healthy and supple, repairing damaged tissue.

Antioxidants (cacao, berries and all high-ORAC foods) combat the free radical damage done by radioactive decay.

Brazil nuts deliver a huge amount of the much needed selenium.

Five Women Activists in Patriarchal Societies

Nala, a 16-year-old Maasai girl in Tanzania, helped organize support groups for Maasai women. In her twenties, she founded the Massai Women’s Forum, which now has over 30 chapters. It expanded from adult literacy classes to village nursery schools, loans to women’s groups, girls’ education programs, etc.  It’s considered one of the few organizations that really help people by creating a social network to create change. Nala described her work as “to educate young Maasai women who are being forced to marry older men…to advocate the right of Massai women’s education, because Maasai women need to do something different and not just get married. ….We have a lot of girls fleeing from forced marriages and coming to MWF because many them need education support.” [i]

When Nala finished primary school, her father wanted her to marry. She put up a “big struggle” and refused to get married. She was strong-willed, given the nickname “half-man” by an uncle after she protected her family’s cattle herd from being stolen. Her male relatives were going on to secondary school and she wanted to go with them. Her cousin helped intercede with her father and tried to convince his father—an age group leader—to help her. After months of planning, disguised in a red blanket worn by Maasai men, at midnight she got in a waiting car of an educated Maasai friend of her cousin, who drove her to the capital city of Dar-es-Salaam. Her helpers talked her father into calling off the marriage and repaying the dowry. As 16, she began coordinating women’s groups.

Another woman activist in an extremely patriarchal society is Tawakkol Karman who led the rebellion in Yemen, inspired by the youth uprising in Tunisia. Yemeni women are often burka-clad with only their eyes showing, the majority is illiterate, and many girls are married off as children, their legal testimony worth half of men’s. The demonstrations started at Sanaa University with ten people the day after Ben Ali left Tunisia. Men were surprised when Ms. Karman took the microphone to speak but they followed her and her Facebook and cellphone messages. After a week, she was acknowledged as the movement’s leader. She was jailed but released after three days although thugs beat her and other protestors. Dictator Saleh told her brother, “Control your sister. Anyone who disobeys me will be killed.” The demonstrations steadily grew to over a million protestors. She’s 32, a college-educated journalist, the mother of three children, active in the opposition party Islah. Her photograph is available online. [ii]

This is not her first foray into activism, as she previously led sit-ins at the Ministry of Social Affairs to gain the release of jailed journalists in her role as head of Women Journalists Without Chains. Framed photographs of Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King, and Hillary Clinton sit on the mantel in her sitting room. She told a journalist that Clinton is her role model and she was inspired by Mandela’s memoir and Gandhi’s autobiography.[iii]

Here is her analysis of the role of women in reducing terrorist extremism[iv]:

Women have more opportunities in challenging extremism and terrorism than men due to woman’s nature in having patience, containing others, hating killing and bloodshed and—more importantly—women have tremendous feelings of love and sacrifice towards their husbands, children, and communities that is enough to enhance the attitude of coexistence, respect, trust, and listening to the other. This, in turn, will lead drying the roots and sources of extremism. Extremism stems from the culture of rejecting the other and the culture of hating the other. Therefore, there is no solution other than spreading the culture of coexistence and dialogue, skills that women master and possess.

A Yemeni woman cannot be part of terrorism because she herself is suffering from terrorism. She is banned from taking part in public life, fearing she will mingle with men (which is forbidden). The intellectual terrorism that is practiced against woman by a large segment of men in the Yemeni society makes her ineffective in the public domain either politically or socially. A Yemeni woman without doubt has no role in recruiting or training terrorists in order to kill innocent people. If the policy of excluding women from public life and preventing her from effectively taking part in developing this country and challenging terrorism along with men continues, the culture of extremism will flourish and the ramifications will be disastrous.

Malalai Joya is a pseudonym because this Afghan feminist and youngest member of the Afghan parliament fears for her life for herself and her family. A documentary called Enemies of Happiness filmed her running for office in the country with the highest percent of young people. She was suspended from attending parliament because she spoke up very directly about the corrupt Karzai government’s embracing of violent warlords and the US support for this regime. ”Collateral damage” from western military has killed thousands of civilians, she protests. This in a country where she reports “killing a woman is like killing a bird,” rape goes unpunished every day, girls are still sold into marriage, and most (80%) women are illiterate. She has to travel with bodyguards because of the fundamentalists’ threats on her life, like another Muslim woman who told a similar story. (Somali writer Ayaan Hirsi Ali described her journey in her book Infidel.[i] )             Her courage and outspoken commitment to freedom and literacy started as a teenager, when she taught Afghan women in refugee camps where she lived near Peshawar, Pakistan. She then risked her life to teach girls in secret schools under the Taliban, back in Afghanistan. It’s one time she was grateful for having to wear a burka that disguised the schoolbooks she carried. She tells her story in A Woman Among Warlords and continues to lobby for democracy in her country and withdrawal of foreign troops. Like Tawakkol Karman who led the rebellion in Yemen, she had a supportive father and then husband and was inspired by reading about revolutionaries like Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela.[ii] (Ms. Joya’s list also includes Che Guevara, Patrice Lumumba, Bhagat Singh, Saeed Sultanpur, and Victor Jara.) The courage these young women demonstrate in patriarchal societies is inspirational.

In India, where uneducated women are expected to obey their fathers and then their husbands, some are rebelling against violence and injustice. When Sampat Pal was a little girl in India, her parents wouldn’t let her go to school, so she wrote the alphabet on village walls and floors. They finally agreed to send her to school, but removed her when she was 12 to marry a man 13 years older. A year later she had the first of her five children. At 18, she started meeting with local organizations to work on women’s health issues and fight against child marriage, dowry abuse, and domestic violence. Her husband didn’t like her speaking with men but “He supports me now,” she said. She added, “There used to be a pervasive feeling of helplessness, a collective belief that fighting back is just not possible, but that is slowly changing.”[i]

She organized the Gulabi (Pink) Gang in 2006 to help victims of domestic violence. She told her group of women, “To face down men in this part of the world, you have to use force. We function in a man’s world where men make all the rules. Our fight is against injustice.” The group started with a few women and spread to villages throughout the northern state of Uttar Pradesh. The women use clubs and bamboo batons to influence wife beaters, rapists, and corrupt government officials to change. One of the members whose husband used to beat her reported he stopped when she joined the gang; “I learned that the more you suffer silently, the more your oppressor will oppress you.”

When a landlord raped a teenage girl, he paid the police not to investigate. The Pink Gang called the police chief and he got on the case. In 2008 the group discovered that a government shop that was supposed to give free grain to the poor was in fact selling it. The pink-clad women stopped the trucks carrying grain to the illegal market by deflating the tires and taking the drivers’ keys. They pressured government officials to get the grain to the poor. Ms. Pal also teaches women job skills such as weaving plates from leaves and sewing.


An outspoken Egyptian head of the National Council for Women-Egypt, diplomat Mervat Tallawy, opposed the wishes of the Muslim Brotherhood when she voted for a UN resolution to combat violence against women. She told reporters after the UN vote in 2013,


International solidarity is needed for women’s empowerment and preventing this regressive mood, whether in the developing countries or developed, or in the Middle East in particular. It’s a global wave of conservatism, of repression against women, and this paper is a message that if we can get together, hold power together, we can be a strong wave against this conservatism. I believe in women’s cause. I don’t take money from the government. I work voluntarily. If they want to kick me out they can. But I will not change my belief in women. Women are the slaves of this age. This is unacceptable, and particularly in our region.[i]

[i] Edith Lederer, “UN Adopts Plan to Combat Violence Against Women, March 16, 2013, Associated Press.


[i] Anuj Chopra, “Pink Gang Women,” San Francisco Chronicle, June 14, 2009, p. A6. See a video: http://current.com/items/88939424_gulabi-gang-the-pink-women-of-india.htm

[i] Ayaan Hirsi Ali. Infidel. Free Press, 2007. See also Fadumo Korn. Born in the Big Rains: A Memoir of Somalia and Survival. The Feminist Press at CUNY, 2006.

[ii] Malalai Joya. A Woman Among Warlords. Scribner, 2009, p. 33.

[i] P. 157 Benjamin Gardner

[ii] Sudarsan Raghavan, “In Yemen, Female Activist Strives for Egyptian-like Revolution, Washington Post, February 15, 2011


[iii] Dexter Filkins, “Letter From Yemen,” The New Yorker, April 11, 2011.


Social Environmental Solutions


Author Bill McKibben’s answer is to do more locally, smaller, and slower in the communities where we live. For example, pay shares to support local organic farmers including urban farming. Some communities have wind power and other energy cooperatives, as in Canada. In Rwanda community work is performed the last Saturday morning of each month, as by planting trees.[i] We can eat less meat, because as much as half of global warming gases are caused by the livestock industry, more than greenhouse gasses emitted by cars.[ii] Cows produce one pound of methane for every two pounds of their meat. Activists for these kinds of remedies can use the Internet to organize, as McKibben has. For updates, see www.350.org.

Plan B 3.O by Lester Brown, in his book by that title, tells how to save our planet. He updates his research and is even more urgent in World on the Edge (2011) where he says “we’re one poor harvest away from chaos.” Global warming is reducing the world’s grain supply, the foundation of the food economy. His goal is to stop global warming, slow population growth, erase poverty, and restore ecosystems. His plan includes how to create better energy efficiency as with incandescent light bulbs and a plant-based diet, renewable sources of energy like wind and solar, expanding forests, and doing away with coal power plants and overpopulation. He proposes a carbon tax of $240 per ton to discourage fossil fuel use. Some examples Brown gives of renewable energy in action are 60 million Europeans get their home electricity from wind farms, nearly 40 million Chinese homes get their hot water from rooftop solar-water heaters and Iceland uses geothermal energy.[iii] These alternatives need to become the norm.


Model Cities, Countries: Cities are creating information networks about resources[iv] and regions are joining together, such as a group started by former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2010 called R20 to fund reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Schwarzenegger says local governments are taking action because:


We can’t afford to wait for national and international movement. I think that all great movements start on the grassroots level, so I think that we start on the local level, the state level and move up and put the pressure on national governments to get the job done. R20 will help pave the way in the transition to a green economy that will clean the environment, create green jobs and respond to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. [1]


Chicago is working to become “the greenest city in America,” although Portland, Oregon, makes that claim. Chicago planted over 500,000 trees and added more than two million square feet of rooftop gardens. It collects food wastes to turn into compost for city gardens. Plastic bags were banned by the city of San Francisco, requiring that people shop with reusable cloth bags or paper bags of biodegradable materials. It takes 1,000 years for plastic to biodegrade: An Internet petition opposes their use.[v] It also banned the use of city funds to buy bottled water because of the huge waste in plastic bottles—around the world 2.5 million water bottles are tossed each hour. The DVD Tapped shows us about water shortages and bottled water.[vi] When I was in Tanzania, they burned plastic bottles and other trash, polluting the air.

The Cool Cities program encourages the hottest cities to paint roofs and paved surfaces white. Hashem Akbari, a scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, explains that white reflects the sun’s rays rather than attracting and absorbing heat. The city of Berkeley passed a law in 2007 committing the city to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, down from 696,498 tons of greenhouse gases that the city generated in 2000. Solutions are to have shared vehicles and free bus passes; to require high-efficiency home appliances, solar-powered water heaters, and insulation in building walls; and to require new building to be green as by using recycled and green materials.

Models of green buildings include the Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability in Vancouver, British Columbia, and the California Environmental Protection Agency’s 25-story Joe Serna Jr. Building. It used recycled ceiling tiles and has worm-composting bins, leading to savings of around $1 million a year. Ford Motor Company’s old River Rouge Complex was restored with a roof garden that collects rainwater on over 10 acres. The University of New Hampshire gets much of its energy from methane gas generated by its huge compost landfill. The 30 St. Mary Axe building in London has gardens on every sixth floor for air purification.[vii] The UK plans to build “eco-towns” powered by wind or solar energy, not dependent on cars, and minimizing water use. As of 2016, all new homes must be carbon neutral in the UK, although skepticism abounds about achieving the goal. [viii]

Although the US Congress resists taking action to prevent global warming, some states tried to do something. The world’s eighth-largest economy, California passed a law in 2006 called the Global Warming Solutions Act. It imposed an 80% carbon emission reduction by 2050. It set up a cap-and-trade program because Congress didn’t pass it. (“The ‘cap’ is a legal limit on the quantity of greenhouse gases that a region can emit each year and ‘trade’ means that companies may swap among themselves the permission—or permits—to emit greenhouse gases.”[ix]) However, the attorneys general of at least four other states sued on the grounds it interferes with the right to freely conduct interstate commerce. Renewable energy will only account for about 10% of US energy consumption by 2020,[x] while the European Union is aiming for 20%.[xi]

Germany is a leading European country in developing green technology; for example, its parliament building runs on green energy. The country developed 250,000 new jobs in renewable energy by mid 2009, including wind power jobs. The green-jobs creation program costs the average family $38 a year on its utility bill. The government gives people incentives to retrofit their homes, police give tickets to polluting cars that drive in emission-reduction zones, and competitions are held to see who can save the most power.[xii] Spain is second in the world in wind-energy production and is a leader in solar and biofuel technologies. Sweden’s Natural Step established environmentally responsible industrial practices. In South Korea, consumers can earn “carbon points” for cash rebates when they use a “green credit card” to buy eco-friendly products or actions like taking public transport. The card is part of a government effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020, and private companies are also offering coupons in return for conserving electricity and water.

When I was in Brazil, gas stations had both gas and sugar cane ethanol, and they can be mixed in the gas tank.


Under the leadership of Marina Silva, Brazil’s environment minister from 2003 to 2008, the country once thought to be among the worst environmental offenders in the world turned a corner.[xiii] Today Brazil is a country that powers its cars with energy-saving ethanol, relies heavily on hydroelectric- and wind-produced energy, and legislates to protect the land rights of indigenous communities. In 2008, it soared to first place in National Geographic’s Greendex survey [India was second, US consumers were at the bottom], which ranks countries by environmentally sustainable consumption patterns. [You can get your own individual score by taking an online survey and also test your knowledge and compare with answers from individuals in other countries.[xiv]]

But Brazil’s environmental gains may not be long lasting. Experts predict that by 2014 Brazil will be the fifth-largest economy in the world, ahead of France and Britain. It’s these economic ambitions that threaten the country’s environmental footprint. In 2008, Marina Silva stepped down from her post at the Ministry of the Environment to return to her previous position in the Senate, citing a “growing resistance” within the Brazilian government to protecting environmental interests as her reasoning.


In 2010 she ran on the Green Party for president. Silva used social media such as Twitter and Facebook to help spread her ideas of environmentally sustainable growth, especially to younger voters.[xv] Young people started a movement on Twitter to support Marina Silva for president of Brazil, quickly attracting over 100,000 followers, but Dilma Rousseff won because of the endorsement of the previous president.

As well as governments, progressive businesses are going green. Sun Microsystems plans to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by using energy-saving technology and allowing thousand of employees to telecommute at home. In 2006 Toyota was the world’s first automaker to offer a mass-produced hybrid car, the Prius. India’s Tata Company featured the Tata Nano, the world’s cheapest car, in 2008, with a total cost of only $3,250. Indians worry about what it will do to already crowded roads and to auto emission, although it gets 47 miles to the gallon.

Dried miscanthus, a plant related to sugar cane, could be the fuel of the future. Researchers say it’s possible to convert the cellulose in this and other plants into a fuel that could replace diesel and gasoline. Researchers at the new Energy Biosciences Institute at the University of California-Berkeley are working on a recipe for this biofuel. Also in California, a new way to harness solar energy is being tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s National [fusion] Ignition Facility.[xvi] The goal is to use hydrogen from ocean water to create an endless supply of clean fuel.

An expensive effort to use the sun’s energy to create nuclear fusion is underway in France.[xvii] It’s funded by a coalition of governments as construction of the plant alone costs over $17 billion. It’s called ITER, Latin for “the way.” The process will begin in 2026, fusing hydrogen nuclei that release massive energy. “Fusion offers the prospect of thousands of years of energy supply without further [environmental] issues,” reports Mike Zarnstorff, the deputy director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in New Jersey.



The Sierra Club rates the 100 greenest colleges, with Green Mountain College in Vermont as #1.[xviii] Local schools can become green schools by growing a vegetable garden, serving local organic food, using ecological cleaning products, and educating children about the ecosystem. They can compost food wastes, use recycled paper, and LED lights.[xix] Providing exercise as well as healthy food helps correct the obesity problem. In China, Yunan Jin dreaded the sandstorms when they blew in every spring in Beijing, “a veritable hell on earth,” so when he was age 14, he got people together to plant trees in Mongolia where the storms start. Schools can encourage tree planting in their neighborhoods.

High schools students in Malawi had these suggestions for conservation:[xx]

Recycle paper, plant trees, and use alternatives to burning charcoal. Students “promise not to be littering and reuse plastics, treating sewage and making organic manure as Malawi is agriculture based.” Nellie wants to “Sensitize the community through groups and clubs” and to “recycle paper.”

The Kyoto Accord of 1997 was the first attempt by the nations of the world to slow down global warming, but expired in 2012. Only the US and Australia didn’t sign it, but among European countries, only the United Kingdom and Sweden achieved real reductions in greenhouse gases. The Montreal Protocol of 2009 was the first environmental treaty to achieve universal ratification. All the world’s governments are now legally committed to phase out ozone depleting substances (ODSs). The Montreal Protocol Multilateral Fund helps developing countries to stop using ODSs like halons. Some proposals to finance climate protection are taxing international shipping and air travel, auctioning emission allowances, and a uniform global tax on carbon emission.[xxi]

A small step forward was the Copenhagen Conference in 2009 where for the first time governments agreed that global warming is a scientifically proven problem and green technology is the business of the future. The conference demonstrated a shift in global power from the West, as India, Brazil, and South Africa, brokered the agreement with the US and the EU—although without any binding specific actions. At the UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun, Mexico, 2010, President Felipe Calderon warned, “If we do not take immediate decisive measures, the negative effects will worsen and the economic, social and ecological consequences will be devastating.” He pointed to the year’s devastating floods in Pakistan, forest fires in Russia, and increase in Caribbean hurricanes as examples of extreme weather. However, decisive measures weren’t taken. The conference participants from over 190 countries agreed to wait for another year to decide in Durban, South Africa, if they should extend the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. They did establish a new fund to help poor countries adapt to climate change and preserve tropical forests.

[ii] Ibid, p. 176.

[vii] sierraclubgreenhome.com

[x] National Research Council and US Department of Energy 2010 Annual Energy Outlook.

[xi] Christine Lins, “Going Beyond 2020,” Bridges, Vol. 27., October 2010.


[xii] . “Intelligence Report,” Parade Magazine, May 24, 2009.

[xix] greenschools.net, http://www.childrenoftheearth.org/ environmental education for youth, http://www.teensturninggreen.org/

[xx] Internet Discussion between Voices of Youth, high school students and UNICEF Malawi, 22t May 2009 http://www.unicef.org/voy/speakout/speakout_567.html

[xxi] United Nations Development Progamme, “What Will It Take to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals?–An International Assessment,” June, 2010, p. 35.

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